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calendar   Thursday - September 29, 2005

Light Reading

Definition 2.1 : A relation r is a table where each column is labeled and represents an attribute and each row represents a record. No two columns can have the same label, and no two rows can be identical (cf .[121]) . There are two relational operations of interest to us : projection and join.

Definition 2.2 : Let U be a set of attributes and let r be a relation over U.

(a) For any X c U, r(X), the projection of r on X, is a relation obtained by taking from each row of r those entries corresponding to the attributes of X an d identifying identical rows.

(b) For any family (X1,X2, . . .,Xk) of subsets of U such that X 1 uX2 u . . .uXk = U , the natural join of the projection of r onto the X 1 ‘s is r(X1)*r(X2)* . . .*r(Xk ) {uJ for each 1
Definition 2.3 : Let U be a finite set of attributes . A functional dependency (FD) f over U is an ordered pair (X,Y) of non-empty subsets of U . Following common notation, we shall write f : X Y and call X the left side of f, denoted L(f) , and Y the right side of f, denoted R(f).

Definition 2.4 : Let U be a set of attributes and let F be a set of FD's over U . The pair [U,F] is called a dependenc y system . A relation r is called a Valid relation over [U,F] if for every FD f : X + Y in F, no two rows of r with identical entries in the X-columns have differing entries in the Y-columns.

Definition 2.5 : Let F be a set of FD' s over U . For any X c U, we define CL F(X ) (or simply CL(X)), the closure of X unde r F, as follows [1,8]:

(1) X c CL(X)

(2) If Y c CL(X) and Y + Z is a FD in F then Z c CL(X).

(3) CL(X) is the least set (with respect to set inclusion) satisfying (1) and (2). A database scheme is a collection of sets of attributes used to define the relations in the database . A relation scheme is a set of attributes used to define a single relation. A decompositio n of a relation scheme R = A l A2 . . . An is its replacement by a database scheme T = {R1,R2, . . .,Rk} such that R1 uR2 u . . .uRk = R (cf .E16]).

Definition 2.6 : Let F be a set of FD' s over U and let T = {X1,X2, . . .,Xk} be a collection of subsets of U.

(a) T is said to be a lossless-join decomposition of U under F if for every valid relation r over [U,F]: r = r(X1)*r(X2)'* . . .*r(Xk) that is, r is the natural join of its projections onto X i's.

(b) For each 1si<_k, let F i be a set of FD's over Xi such that CLF (Z) = CLF (Z)nXi for every Z c Xi. T is said to be a dependency-preserving decomposition of U if for every Y c U, we have CLF (Y) = CLG (Y), where G = F 1 uF 2 u . . .uFk.

We note the following result of Aho, Beer and Ullman ([1], Corollary 1).

Remark 2.7 : {X,Y} is a lossless-join decomposition of XuY if and only if either Y c CL(XnY) or X c CL(XnY).

The next definition will formalize the concepts of key and Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) .

Definition 2.8 : Let F be a set of FD' s over U and let W c U.

(a) A subset X of W is said to be a key of W under F if W c CL(X) . Otherwise, it is a nonkey of W under F.

(b) W is said to be in BCNF if whenever A E CL (X) -X for A E W, X c W, then X is a key of W under F. (In other words, the only nontrivial dependencies in W are those in which a key functionally determines one or more attributes [16] .)

From: DECOMPOSITION OF A RELATION SCHEME INTO BOYCE-CODD NORMAL FORM by Don-Min Tsou, Patrick C . Fischer


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Posted by The Skipper   United States  on 09/29/2005 at 11:19 PM   
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